Crystal Leung PharmD, BCPS, BCOP is an oncology pharmacist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90048, United States.
The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase /protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway plays an important role in cell proliferation, growth, and angiogenesis. mTOR is a critical signalling protein as it serves as precursor to many pathways related to cell growth and survival. When this major pathway is dysregulated, it can cause uninhibited activation of cancer cell growth and proliferation. This commonly results in malignancies that affect the kidney, breast and neuroend