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Manuscript preparation

The following list provides notes on the article sections; authors should consult the section on article types to determine which sections are required for their submission.

  • Title: Concisely and clearly conveys the scope/novelty of the article; not more than 8-12 words.
  • Subtitle: A more detailed description of the topic being reviewed, which must contain the primary keywords; not more than 25-30 words.
  • Author(s) names and affiliations: Including full name, address and email.
  • Abstract (for review and research articles only): Not more than 150–300 words; no references should be cited in the abstract. The abstract should highlight the importance of the field under discussion within the journal’s scope, and clearly define the parameters of the article. Minimum of two sentences describing the importance of the topic, one sentence defining the objective of the article, two to three sentences describing methodology (for literature reviews), one to two sentences summarising the findings and two sentences outlining the conclusion (for literature reviews).
    • For research articles: The abstract should be structured like the main headings of the paper (e.g. Introduction, Methodology, Results, Discussion, Conclusion)
  • Keywords: Up to eight keywords (including therapeutic area, mechanism[s] of action etc.) plus names of drugs and compounds mentioned in the text.
  • Sources and selection criteria (methods), (for literature reviews only): This section (not more than 300 words) describes how the authors went about reviewing the literature and selecting their sources.
  • Body of the article: The article content should be arranged under relevant headings and subheadings to assist the reader.
    • For CPD articles: The format for the body of CPD articles should be discussed with the Editor when confirming the article scope and should be in accordance with the article brief.
    For Review articles:
    • Introduction: The introduction should include a clear statement of the review’s objective.
    • Main body: Subheadings are used to divide this section but allow it still to be distinct (approx. 2000-4000 words).
    • Discussion: Specifically focused on looking at relevance of findings, in-depth analysis of the data presented and considering future paradigms (approx. 1000 words).
    • Conclusion: This 250-word section should link back to the review objective, as per the introduction. It should clearly state the implications of the findings and identify possible new research questions or fields.
  • Key points box (for review and research articles only): A series of five bulleted summary points (approx. 100 words) that illustrate the main topics or conclusions of the article.
  • Financial Disclosure/Conflicts of Interest/Acknowledgements: This section includes any financial and/or material support that was received for the research or the creation of the work, disclosing any relationships the authors have (personal, academic or financial relationships that could influence their actions). If an author has any financial involvement with an organisation or entity that may have a financial interest in, or financial conflict with, the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript, this should be disclosed. If writing assistance has been used in the creation of the manuscript, this should be stated and any sources of funding for such assistance clearly identified.
  • Author contributions: A brief statement of who did what.
  • Provenance: Statement of how the article was commissioned.
  • References:
    • Learn more about citations in our guide ”How to write references for your reference list and bibliography”.
    • Key points:
      • Authors should focus on recent papers and papers older than five years should not be included except for an overriding purpose.
      • Primary literature references, and any patents or websites, should be numerically listed in the reference section in the order that they occur in the text (including any references that only appear in figures/tables/boxes).
        • Vancouver reference style (see style guide, reference manager or Endnote styles)
        • References should be denoted numerically and in sequence in the text, using superscript.
        • Authors should, where possible, provide DOIs for the articles they cite. The easiest way to find an article’s DOI is to cut-&-paste references into CrossRef’s simple text query:
    • Authors can cite journal articles that have been submitted and accepted for publication but are yet to be published. These should form part of the main reference section and should be numbered accordingly.
    • Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be credited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source and should not be cited or included in the reference list.
    • Authors should avoid citing a personal communication, unless it provides essential information not available from a public source. In this case, include the nature and source of the cited information, using a term or terms to indicate clearly that no corresponding citation is in the reference list. Place the source information in parentheses (the name of the person and date of communication).
    • The same format should be followed for documents available to scholars in an archive or a depository.
    • Authors can cite papers and poster sessions presented at meetings, including items that were presented but never published and items for which any subsequent publication is unknown. If subsequent publication is known, they should cite the published form rather than the meeting paper or poster session.
  • Figures and tables: Summary figures and tables and boxes are useful, and we encourage their use in all article types. CPD and review articles should contain at least one, but no more than three figures that help the author condense and illustrate the main findings or methods they wish to convey. A maximum of three tables can also be included in CPD, review and research articles.
    • Figures and tables should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. All abbreviations used within them should be defined in the legend.
    • Please ensure that scale bars are included in figures where appropriate (i.e. photomicrographs). Symbols, arrows or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Please explain internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

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