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Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of tuberculosis (TB) bacteria infecting macrophages

Fluoroquinolones for treating tuberculosisSubscription

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health and socioeconomic challenge. The duration of current anti-TB therapies, the adverse effects of certain anti-TB drugs and the growing problem of drug-resistant TB on an international scale mean that it is imperative for new, effective and safe treatment regimens to be developed. Fluoroquinolones are a class of drugs that have been used in the treatment of TB for several decades. This article provides an overview of the current treatment ...

Action of serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Depression in adults: recognition and managementSubscription

Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be able to recognise the symptoms of depression in people who use their services and direct them towards accessing treatment. This article examines how a diagnosis of depression is made, the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments available, specific considerations for different patient groups, self-management approaches, and the role of the pharmacy team in managing and supporting patients who have symptoms of depression.

Micrograph of multiple myeloma tumour cells (green) and bone cells (red) growing on a scaffold made of silk protein (purple), designed to resemble bone material

Multiple myeloma: pharmacological managementSubscription

Although multiple myeloma is currently regarded as being incurable in the majority of patients, the outlook for patients diagnosed with the condition has improved markedly over the last 40 years, with survival rates quadrupling. Significant advances in both treatment and supportive therapies have contributed to these improved outcomes and are discussed in this article.

Micrograph of Clostridium difficile bacteria

Clostridium difficile: diagnosis and treatment update

There are around 12,000 cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) each year in the UK and during 1999 to 2007, deaths from CDI peaked at around 4,000 per year. This article summarises diagnosis and management, as well as the current therapeutic options for CDI, including faecal microbiota transplant.

coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of bacterial blood infection (sepsis) caused by a rod shaped bacterium (blue)

Sepsis: an update on identification and management Subscription

All healthcare professionals, including pharmacists, should be aware of the clinical features and management of sepsis. This article summarises the recent changes in the definition of sepsis in adults, as well as its management.

Testing for blood clotting

How to identify causes of a subtherapeutic INRSubscription

Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are often involved in the management of patients with subtherapeutic international normalised ratios (INRs), the cause of which is important to identify because this will affect decisions and the subsequent management of the patient.

Boy with Down's Syndrome listens to a healthcare worker

Reducing antipsychotic prescribing in people with learning disabilities Subscription

Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are ideally placed to review and reduce inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medicines in people with learning disabilities safely and effectively.

X-ray of the intestines of a patient with Crohn's disease

Biosimilars and inflammatory bowel disease: a switch programme using CT-P13Subscription

How to plan and manage switching patients from a biologic to a biosimilar in inflammatory bowel disease, using the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust’s experience as an example.

Illustration antibiotic destroying bacteria

Principles of initiating antimicrobial therapy and empiric prescribingSubscription

Healthcare professionals should be aware of the principles of antimicrobial treatment and the need to reduce inappropriate prescribing to retain the effectiveness of drugs currently available.

Urticaria rash on the upper chest of a woman

Chronic spontaneous urticaria: clinical features, diagnosis and managementSubscription

Defined as the non-inducible recurrence of wheals, angioedema or both for six weeks or more, chronic spontaneous urticaria is a difficult to diagnose and debilitating skin condition. Pharmacists should be aware of the clinical features in order to identify and manage this condition effectively.

Close up of a leg with livedo reticular is

Antiphospholipid syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatmentSubscription

How antiphospholipid syndrome, also known as Hughes syndrome, is diagnosed and the appropriate therapeutic options for its management.

Illustration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: clinical phenotypes and implications for managementSubscription

Phenotyping patients with chronic obsructive pulmonary disease allows their separation into distinct categories that differentiate their prognosis and response to treatment, producing clinically meaningful outcomes.

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