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Micrograph of multiple myeloma tumour cells (green) and bone cells (red) growing on a scaffold made of silk protein (purple), designed to resemble bone material

Multiple myeloma: pharmacological management

Although multiple myeloma is currently regarded as being incurable in the majority of patients, the outlook for patients diagnosed with the condition has improved markedly over the last 40 years, with survival rates quadrupling. Significant advances in both treatment and supportive therapies have contributed to these improved outcomes and are discussed in this article.

Micrograph of Clostridium difficile bacteria

Clostridium difficile: diagnosis and treatment update

There are around 12,000 cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) each year in the UK and during 1999 to 2007, deaths from CDI peaked at around 4,000 per year. This article summarises diagnosis and management, as well as the current therapeutic options for CDI, including faecal microbiota transplant.

coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of bacterial blood infection (sepsis) caused by a rod shaped bacterium (blue)

Sepsis: an update on identification and management Subscription

All healthcare professionals, including pharmacists, should be aware of the clinical features and management of sepsis. This article summarises the recent changes in the definition of sepsis in adults, as well as its management.

Testing for blood clotting

How to identify causes of a subtherapeutic INRSubscription

Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are often involved in the management of patients with subtherapeutic international normalised ratios (INRs), the cause of which is important to identify because this will affect decisions and the subsequent management of the patient.

Boy with Down's Syndrome listens to a healthcare worker

Reducing antipsychotic prescribing in people with learning disabilities Subscription

Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are ideally placed to review and reduce inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medicines in people with learning disabilities safely and effectively.

X-ray of the intestines of a patient with Crohn's disease

Biosimilars and inflammatory bowel disease: a switch programme using CT-P13Subscription

How to plan and manage switching patients from a biologic to a biosimilar in inflammatory bowel disease, using the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust’s experience as an example.

Illustration antibiotic destroying bacteria

Principles of initiating antimicrobial therapy and empiric prescribingSubscription

Healthcare professionals should be aware of the principles of antimicrobial treatment and the need to reduce inappropriate prescribing to retain the effectiveness of drugs currently available.

Urticaria rash on the upper chest of a woman

Chronic spontaneous urticaria: clinical features, diagnosis and managementSubscription

Defined as the non-inducible recurrence of wheals, angioedema or both for six weeks or more, chronic spontaneous urticaria is a difficult to diagnose and debilitating skin condition. Pharmacists should be aware of the clinical features in order to identify and manage this condition effectively.

Close up of a leg with livedo reticular is

Antiphospholipid syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatmentSubscription

How antiphospholipid syndrome, also known as Hughes syndrome, is diagnosed and the appropriate therapeutic options for its management.

Illustration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: clinical phenotypes and implications for managementSubscription

Phenotyping patients with chronic obsructive pulmonary disease allows their separation into distinct categories that differentiate their prognosis and response to treatment, producing clinically meaningful outcomes.

Computer illustration of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) molecule (round) bound to an LDL receptor (LDLR) protein, with a molecule of the enzyme proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, blue) bound to a PCSK9 inhibitor antibody (orange)

Non-statin drugs for the management of dyslipidaemia in adultsSubscription

The role of non-statin drugs, including ezetimibe, fibrates, bile acid binders, nicotinic acid derivatives, omega-3 fatty acid supplements and PCSK9 inhibitors, for the management of dyslipidaemia in adults.

Bipolar brain, 3D view of an MRI scan

Bipolar disorder: pharmacotherapy options with a focus on women of childbearing ageSubscription

Bipolar disorder and its implications for women of childbearing age, with a focus on the use of valproate and how this compares to other available pharmacologic treatments.

Micrograph of a blood filled micrograph

Bridging anticoagulation: perioperative management of patients on anticoagulantsSubscription

How patients on anticoagulants can be effectively managed in the perioperative period, including the evidence for the need for ‘bridging’ anticoagulation therapy and introduction of direct oral anticoagulants.

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