Michael Bennett-Marsden, PgDip, MRPharmS, is lead pharmacist for surgery at Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust.
Leeches can be used to relieve vascular congestion caused by poor venous drainage in vascularly compromised tissue. This article describes how the treatment works and some practical considerations.
Summary Overactive bladder (OAB) is considered to be caused by an overactivity of the detrusor muscles in the bladder wall. Patients with OAB may experience symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia and urinary incontinence, which can be distressing and debilitating and affect their quality of life. A full assessment of symptoms, physi
Overactive bladder: managementSubscription
Summary Conservative management techniques, such as drinking less caffeine, fluid restriction and bladder training, can provide some relief from the symptoms of overactive bladder. If these are insufficient or ineffective and pharma