In the UK, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women aged under 35 years. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 (both high risk) are necessary precipitants in at least 70% of cervical cancers but may contribute to more than 80% of cervical cancers in Scotland. Both the prophylactic bivalent (Cervarix; GlaxoSmithKline) and quadrivalent (Gardasil; Merck) vaccines prevent infection with HPV types 16 and 18, and have been shown to induce avid and sustained neutralising ...
Examining the emerging roles for pharmacists as part of the urgent, acute and emergency care workforceSubscription
In the future urgent, acute and emergency medicine clinical workforce, new models of care and care delivery need to be developed, in order to maintain and enhance standards of safe and accessible patient care. A departure from traditional (doctor-led) approaches to workforce planning, and an understanding of scope and governance surrounding emerging clinical roles is necessary to develop a sustainable, multi-skilled workforce across primary, community and secondary care. Today’s ...
Pre-exposure prophylaxis should be a key component of a comprehensive HIV prevention package fully funded on the NHSSubscription
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the medication taken by HIV-negative individuals to reduce their risk of contracting HIV infection. The large evidence base for the use of PrEP has been reviewed and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), a specialised agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), England’s health ...
Long-term (five years) adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for oestrogen receptor-positive, or ER-positive, breast cancer post-surgery is recognised as a major advance in healthcare. Clinical trials comparing standard and extended tamoxifen therapy found a major decrease in mortality occurred in the ten years following a decade of adjuvant therapy. Studies in premenopausal breast cancer patients showed that ovarian function suppression (OFS) plus an aromatase inhibitor (AI), ...
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel devices that simulate aspects of cigarette smoking and deliver nicotine to users. Evidence for their efficacy in smoking cessation, based on several randomised controlled trials of older devices, suggests a modest effect. They appear to be far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are unknown. Possible adverse population effects of widespread e-cigarette use, such as renormalising smoking ...
Jenny Bryan takes a look at the discovery of carbapenem antibiotics and their role as the last line of defence against drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Gordon Becket and colleagues explain how pharmacy students at the University of Central Lancashire benefited from speaking directly to patients about their medical conditions
Vaccination has helped reduced the spread of seasonal and pandemic influenza in the UK for over 50 years. Jenny Bryan takes a look at the history of the flu vaccine
How the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor filgrastim has become part of the staple diet of chemotherapy
NICE advice about medicines in care homes was due to be published as The Journal went to press. Debbie Andalo looks at how pharmacists currently support residents
Are you thinking about applying for NIHR/HEE clinical academic training funding? In this article, Beth Allen and Peter Noyce suggests things to consider when putting pen to paper
There is more to access than you may thinkSubscription
Luc Besançon, general secretary of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), urges readers to explore the many ways in which they can bring about healthy outcomes
Supervision relaxation is on the cards again. Ellen Schafheutle and colleagues describe a study that explored communty and hospital pharmacyprofessionals’ views of the issues
In our final “-omics” science article, Hamde Nazar takes a look at research and development in the field of pharmacogenomics and its importance in medicine today
Kalliopi Dodou and Paul Whiteley describe the study and analysis of the proteome in this month’s -omics science article
In this months’ science article, Kalliopi Dodou and Paul Whiteley take a look at the growing interest in the research of lipids
Conventional drug delivery systems suffer from the limitations of minimal synchronisation between the required time for therapeutically effective drug plasma concentrations and the actual drug release profile exhibited by the dosage form.