Cookie policy: This site uses cookies (small files stored on your computer) to simplify and improve your experience of this website. Cookies are small text files stored on the device you are using to access this website. For more information please take a look at our terms and conditions. Some parts of the site may not work properly if you choose not to accept cookies.

  • 2 of 3

Figure 1: Chemical structures of benzylpenicillin (A), cefotaxime (B) and amoxicillin (C)

The thiazolidine ring in penicillins, the dihydrothiazine ring in cephalosporins and the side chains in beta-lactam antibiotics are immunogenic. Drug metabolites containing these components act as incomplete antigens that can covalently bind to larger proteins to elicit an immune response in patients.