Conor Gilligan is senior lecturer, School of Medicine and Public Health Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.
Safe dispensing in community pharmacies: applying the software, hardware, environment and liveware (SHELL) model
The human aspects of the community pharmacy work system are vulnerable to medication-related errors. Established models of human error can identify actual or potential hazards, and are important in our understanding of the interaction between human and system factors that influence performance. The software, hardware, environment and liveware (SHELL) model, a traditional human factors framework, is used in this article to classify potential sources of error in community phar