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    Antimicrobial stewardship

    The latest learning and CPD content on antimicrobial stewardship. Under ‘Other resources’ you will find all our other content related to 'Antimicrobial stewardship'.

    CPD and Learning

    Differential diagnosis: cold, flu or COVID-19?

    Differential diagnosis: cold, flu or COVID-19?

    24 SEP 2020By ,

    An overview of the main differences between the symptoms for colds, flu and COVID-19, to enable pharmacy teams to advise patients effectively on their management, including treatment and/or referral.

    Outlining the vital role of each member of the pharmacy team and highlighting best practice when patients present with cold and flu ensures a consistent, high standard of care is available across pharmacy

    Reconsidering community pharmacy’s role in cold and fluVideo

    27 SEP 2019By , ,

    Outlining the vital role of each member of the pharmacy team and highlighting best practice when patients present with cold and flu ensures a consistent, high standard of care is available across pharmacy.

    Teenager takes allergy test

    Accurately diagnosing antibiotic allergiesSubscription

    17 JUL 2018By , , ,

    Diagnosing true drug allergy can be challenging and it is important that patients are managed appropriately.

    Micrograph of Clostridium difficile bacteria

    Clostridium difficile: diagnosis and treatment updateSubscription

    9 FEB 2017By , , ,

    There are around 12,000 cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) each year in the UK and during 1999 to 2007, deaths from CDI peaked at around 4,000 per year. This article summarises diagnosis and management, as well as the current therapeutic options for CDI, including faecal microbiota transplant.

    Illustration antibiotic destroying bacteria

    Principles of initiating antimicrobial therapy and empiric prescribingSubscription

    11 AUG 2016By

    Healthcare professionals should be aware of the principles of antimicrobial treatment and the need to reduce inappropriate prescribing to retain the effectiveness of drugs currently available.

    Healthcare-associated infection in England was 6.4% in 2011 and six common infections accounted for over 80% of infections in adults. In the image, a petri dish with a staphylococcus aureus culture

    Healthcare-associated infection: best practice in prevention and controlSubscription

    21 JUL 2015By

    Understand the standard principles and practices of infection control, with a brief overview of initiatives aimed at reducing rates of infection acquired in a healthcare setting.

    Growing antimicrobial resistance is growing and results in 25,000 deaths in Europe each year. In the image, enterobacteriaceae (CRE) bacterium in an antibiotic susceptibility test proved to be resistant to all of the antibiotics tested

    Improving antimicrobial stewardshipVideoSubscription

    4 NOV 2014By

    Improve your practice and slow the increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance that already cost around 25,000 deaths across Europe each year.

    CBL Impetigo

    Case-based learning: impetigoSubscription

    15 SEP 2020By ,

    Pharmacists need to identify and manage impetigo effectively to help prevent its spread. 

    Mycoplasma genitalium bacteria

    Antibiotic treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infectionSubscription

    7 AUG 2019By , ,

    An overview of the 2018 guideline for management of this sexually transmitted infection in men and women.

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly used for the treatment of infections and surgical prophylaxis. In the image, surgeons in the middle of an operation

    Gentamicin: dose regimens and monitoring

    4 AUG 2015By ,

    How to calculate the correct dose of gentamicin and monitor patients to prevent toxicity.

    Scarlet fever is an infectious disease caused by toxin-producing strains of the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), pictured

    Scarlet fever: acute management and infection controlSubscription

    9 APR 2015By , ,

    With England facing increased levels of scarlet fever for the second consecutive year, find out how to identify and treat this communicable disease.

    Chlamydia (pictured) is one of a series of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that have increased considerably in the last ten years

    Treating bacterial sexually transmitted infectionsSubscription

    11 NOV 2014By , ,

    With azithromycin made available over the counter for chlamydia treatment, this CPD article reviews how to identify and treat the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections.

    Hidradenitis suppurativa

    Hidradenitis suppurativaSubscription

    5 JUL 2014By

    Although there is no cure for this painful condition, pharmacists can play a key role in its management.

    Other resources

    Stuck in the 1950s: why UTI diagnosis badly needs an update

    Stuck in the 1950s: why UTI diagnosis badly needs an updateSubscription

    15 OCT 2020By

    Urinary tract infections are the second most common reason for prescribing an antibiotic and, with antimicrobial stewardship a priority for the government, the stakes for accurate diagnosis are being raised ever higher.

    researcher in laboratory

    Point-of-care testing for influenza could improve antimicrobial use, feasibility study concludesSubscription

    20 AUG 2020

    Point-of-care testing for influenza is feasible in primary care and may improve antimicrobial use, a study in the British Journal of General Practice has concluded.

    Dangerous label false penicillin allergies fuel antibiotic resistance

    Dangerous labels: incorrect penicillin allergies fuel antibiotic resistanceSubscription

    4 JUN 2020By

    The vast majority of people with a penicillin allergy label are, in fact, not allergic, leading to significant healthcare implications. Experts say it is now time for a national “de-labelling” drive to help conserve vital antibiotics.

    Target in a petri dish

    Secrets of success: the hospitals slashing their antibiotic useSubscription

    28 NOV 2019By

    Despite the rise of resistant infections, national figures show that antibiotic use continues to grow in hospitals. However, some trusts in England are stepping up their stewardship efforts and achieving significant reductions. Here, three trusts share the secrets to their success.

    Older woman taking antibiotics

    Treat UTIs early in older adults 'to minimise sepsis risk'Subscription

    20 MAR 2019

    Delaying or withholding antibiotics in older adults with urinary tract infections is associated with an increased risk of bloodstream infection and all-cause mortality, research published in The BMJ has shown.

    PCR machine analysing viral DNA

    Point-of-care testing can support antimicrobial stewardshipSubscription

    31 OCT 2018

    Researchers say the integration of point-of-care testing could help identify lower-risk patients in hospitals and subsequently reduce antibiotic use.

    Antibiotic testing, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), agar dish

    Pharmacy’s role in antimicrobial resistance and stewardshipSubscription

    5 JUN 2018By , , Rachel Joynes,

    This article summarises the evidence supporting the role of pharmacists and pharmacy teams in antimicrobial stewardship and outlines the impact of their activities.

    bacteriophage illustration

    Beyond antibiotics: harnessing bacteria’s natural predatorsSubscription

    10 SEP 2020By

    With antibiotic resistance set to cost 10 million lives per year by 2050, there is a renaissance of interest in the potential of bacteriophages to be the next generation of bacteria killers.

    Macrolide how they work

    Preserving macrolidesSubscription

    27 AUG 2020By , Priya N Chudasama

    Macrolide antibiotics have many uses, particularly for penicillin-allergic patients, but recent trends suggest that resistance is increasing among Gram-positive infections.

    Sepsis micrograph

    Sepsis risk factors could help inform antimicrobial stewardship in primary care, study suggestsSubscription

    18 AUG 2020

    Risk of sepsis and benefit from antibiotics following a GP consultation for infection are more substantial among those who are older, frail or who have had a urinary tract infection, a study has found.


    Clarithromycin linked to increased haemorrhage risk in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulantsSubscription

    14 JUL 2020

    Older adults taking direct oral anticoagulants are more likely to be admitted to hospital for haemorrhage after receiving clarithromycin compared with azithromycin, a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine has suggested.

    antibiotic packets ss 19

    Fluoroquinolone use linked to heart problems, research suggestsSubscription

    30 OCT 2019

    Patients exposed to fluoroquinolone antibiotics are more than twice as likely to develop aortic or mitral regurgitation, compared with patients taking amoxicillin, according to research published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

    antibiotic packets

    Point-of-care testing cuts antibiotic use in COPDSubscription

    17 SEP 2019

    Point-of-care C-reactive protein testing reduces antibiotic use in people with acute COPD exacerbations, a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine has shown.


    Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians can find guidance from The Pharmaceutical Journal on completing the relevant records to meet the General Pharmaceutical Council requirements, as well as support on the scope of activity that could be included in these records here.