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    Cardiovascular diseases

    The latest learning and CPD content on cardiovascular diseases. Under ‘Other resources’ you will find all our other content related to cardiovascular diseases.

    CPD and Learning

    ECG heart cardiovascular test

    Acute coronary syndrome: risk factors, diagnosis and treatment Subscription

    13 MAR 2020By ,

    This overview describes the different management options for acute coronary syndrome and how pharmacists can support patients with the condition.

    Someone measuring their blood pressure while exercising

    Managing hypertension: the role of diet and exerciseSubscription

    14 FEB 2020By

    It is well known that high blood pressure increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes. However, there are lifestyle interventions that pharmacists can encourage patients to implement to reduce this risk.

    Heart failure fluorescent micrograph

    Pathophysiology and management of heart failure

    6 DEC 2018By ,

    Ensuring patients are optimised on maximum tolerated doses of medicines in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is essential in minimising the burden of the condition.

    Patient suffering from aphasia aphasia during speech therapy session

    How to support people with aphasia with medicines optimisationSubscription

    13 FEB 2018By ,

    Aphasia is a communication disability, most often caused by stroke, which occurs when the language centres of the brain are damaged. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of how the communication needs of people with aphasia vary based on the severity of the condition, and how they can best provide support with medicines optimisation.

    3D scan showing brain haemorrhage stroke

    Stroke: classification and diagnosisSubscription

    10 JAN 2018By

    In light of the many pressures currently facing the NHS, as well as an ever increasing ageing population, pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of the risk factors for stroke, its classification and diagnosis.

    Xray showing chronic oedema in the lower limb

    Chronic oedema: treatment and the impact of prescribed medicinesSubscription

    7 JUN 2017By ,

    Early diagnosis of lower limb oedema is crucial to prevent early oedema becoming chronic. Pharmacists and other healthcare professionals are ideally placed to identify patients on certain medicines at higher risk of oedema, and should be aware of signs of chronic oedema when assessing patients to allow for prompt referral.

    Computer illustration of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) molecule (round) bound to an LDL receptor (LDLR) protein, with a molecule of the enzyme proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, blue) bound to a PCSK9 inhibitor antibody (orange)

    Non-statin drugs for the management of dyslipidaemia in adultsSubscription

    12 MAY 2016By

    The role of non-statin drugs, including ezetimibe, fibrates, bile acid binders, nicotinic acid derivatives, omega-3 fatty acid supplements and PCSK9 inhibitors, for the management of dyslipidaemia in adults.

    Risk stratification and ongoing care is important in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome, the new collective term for unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. In the image, a nurse looks at the ECG results of a patient

    Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome: an updateSubscription

    26 SEP 2015By , ,

    Risk stratification and ongoing care is important in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome, the new collective term for unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Other resources

    Woman testing blood pressure

    Effective detection and management of hypertension through community pharmacy in EnglandSubscription

    17 MAR 2020By , , , , ,

    Management of hypertension does not routinely occur in English pharmacies, despite community pharmacy being an ideal place for screening to take place. By examining and learning from the evidence, pharmacies in England can help patients maintain ideal blood pressure levels and improve health outcomes.

    Nutritionist interviewing a patient

    Low-intensity intervention ineffective at reducing cardiovascular riskSubscription

    7 FEB 2020

    A low-intensity psychological intervention did not improve physical activity and weight loss in people at risk of cardiovascular disease events, a study published in Heart has shown.

    older person having a consultation

    GP-based pharmacist interventions cut cardiovascular risk factorsSubscription

    2 JAN 2020

    Pharmacist-led interventions in GP practices can successfully reduce risk factors for cardiovascular events, a systematic review and meta-analysis published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology has suggested.

    Electronic blood pressure monitor

    Antihypertensive medicines most effective when taken at nightSubscription

    18 NOV 2019

    Taking antihypertensive medications in the evening, rather than the morning, improves blood pressure control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, a study published in the European Heart Journal suggests.

    Heart x-ray

    SGLT-2 inhibitors reduce heart failure risk across patient groupsSubscription

    17 OCT 2019

    Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are associated with a reduced risk of heart failure compared with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, even in people without a history of cardiovascular disease, a study published in The BMJ has shown.

    woman taking aspirin

    Nearly 30 million US adults could be taking aspirin for primary CVD preventionSubscription

    26 SEP 2019

    Nearly 30 million adults without cardiovascular disease in the United States could be at risk of harm from taking daily aspirin as a preventative medicine.


    Power of one: what is holding polypills back?Subscription

    20 SEP 2019By

    Single pills with fixed-dose combinations of several medicines are not commonplace for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. As the first randomised controlled trial to show a polypill can cut the risk of heart attacks is published, we look at why, nearly two decades after it was first proposed, development and uptake is limited. 


    Potential interaction between diuretics and laxatives foundSubscription

    13 SEP 2019

    Researchers have identified a plausible drug–drug interaction between laxatives and non-potassium-sparing diuretics.

    Illustration of a blocked artery

    Team interventions improve adherence to lipid-lowering medicationSubscription

    1 MAR 2017

    Pharmacist-led interventions and patient education are better at improving adherence to lipid-lowering drugs than other types of intervention, such as electronic or telephone reminders, study results show.

    Fruits and vegetables in a farmers' market stall

    Fruits and vegetables lower blood pressure and slash medication costs for kidney disease patientsSubscription

    29 SEP 2016

    The cost of antihypertensive drugs nearly halved when researchers assigned patients to eat alkali-inducing fruit and vegetables.

    Close up of hand exhibiting Raynaud’s phenomenon

    Drug-induced Raynaud’s phenomenon ‘probably underestimated’Subscription

    20 APR 2016

    Researchers have identified 12 drug classes associated with Raynaud’s phenomenon that should be prescribed with caution in patients with a history of the condition.

    Researchers found that the 32 patients assigned to the intervention had significantly better adherence scores at both three months and six months than the 39 patients assigned to the control group. In the image, an elderly man talking over the phone

    Pharmacy intervention improves adherence to cardiovascular medicationSubscription

    11 FEB 2016

    Patients had significantly better adherence scores following community pharmacy intervention measures.

    Simvastatin inhibits proliferation of tumour cells and induces calcium-dependent apoptosis, study finds

    Simvastatin induces calcium-dependent apoptosisSubscription

    1 DEC 2014

    Simvastatin inhibits proliferation of tumour cells and induces calcium-dependent apoptosis, shows new research published in Journal of Biological Chemistry.

    Study shows long-term benefits of pravastatin in unstable angina

    23 DEC 2000

    Evidence that pravastatin is of long-term benefit when started after hospital admission for unstable angina is provided by the results of a new trial.


    Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians can find guidance from The Pharmaceutical Journal on completing the relevant records to meet the General Pharmaceutical Council requirements, as well as support on the scope of activity that could be included in these records here.