The latest learning and CPD content is categorised by asthma, COPD and respiratory tract infections. Under ‘Other resources’ you will find all our other content related to respiratory tract diseases.
Examining the impact of sub-optimal inhaler technique and how healthcare professionals can support patients in optimising their technique.
Inhaled corticosteroids: managing side effectsSubscription
Inhaled corticosteroids are commonly prescribed but need careful management to minimise the risk of side effects.
Asthma: long-term managementSubscription
Asthma management is based on a stepwise approach that should see medicines added or stopped based on patient symptoms.
Asthma: pathophysiology, causes and diagnosisSubscription
Despite asthma affecting more than 5.4 million people in the UK, there is no gold standard test and diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms.
Can someone start nicotine replacement therapy while taking theophylline to manage COPD?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: clinical phenotypes and implications for managementSubscription
Phenotyping patients with chronic obsructive pulmonary disease allows their separation into distinct categories that differentiate their prognosis and response to treatment, producing clinically meaningful outcomes.
Emergency oxygen treatment is used two million times a year by ambulance services, and almost one in five hospital patients in the UK are being treated with oxygen at any one time.
December 2010’s Lifelong Learning questions are based on the CLINICALFOCUS articles on Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)The questions can be viewed/printedThis online module is closed
Stroke: classification and diagnosisSubscription
Slurred speech, facial droop and arm weakness — it is critical that all healthcare professionals are alert for these signs of stroke to ensure that patients displaying them receive treatment quickly
A pharmacist-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clinic has led to remarkably improved outcomes for patients in the north east of England, and has shown some unexpected benefits.Ailsa Colquhoun spoke to the clinical pharmacist responsibleSee Best practice
Respiratory tract infections
Case-based learning: sore throatSubscription
Most sore throats are caused by viral infections and get better within a week through self-care. However, it is important to recognise when a sore throat is a symptom of a more serious illness.
Case-based learning: cough Subscription
Most coughs are acute and self-limiting; however, it is important to understand when a cough becomes clinically significant.
Pharmacists can play a vital role in the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and can help improve outcomes and the burden of disease.
Hospital‑acquired pneumonia increases the length of in-patient hospital stay and is associated with high mortality rates, particularly in older people. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to know how to diagnose and manage the condition, and be cognisant of the gaps in the evidence base.
Bronchiectasis is a common chronic disease where the airways of the lungs become abnormally widened. Patients present with recurrent cough, sputum production and are at risk of respiratory tract infections. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to be aware of the latest management strategies.
What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?Subscription
The ‘ice bucket challenge’ was started to raise awareness of ALS; find out more about this fatal neurodegenerative condition.
Pneumonia: CAP, HAP and other typesSubscription
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of mortality with four million deaths worldwide each year. This article consolidates your knowledge of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Managing pneumocystis pneumoniaSubscription
A 34-year-old Hispanic, 60kg man with a recent diagnosis of HIV and dysphasia presented to the on-call service at his local HIV clinic, complaining of hoarseness (dysphonia), fevers, night sweats, lethargy, dizziness, weight loss and loss of appetite, thirst, occasional cough, enlarging skin plaques, cognitive ...
Switching patients who use metered-dose inhalers, which contain hydrofluoroalkane propellants, to cheaper, more environmentally friendly alternatives could lead to major cost savings, as well as reduced NHS greenhouse gas emissions.
Switching inhalers can boost adherenceSubscription
Inhaler switching in asthma and COPD is not associated with negative impacts on patients’ health, study results published in Thorax have shown.
A previously reported association between analgesic use in pregnancy and childhood asthma is likely to result from confounding factors, researchers have concluded.
Obesity is a major preventable cause of childhood asthma, conclude the authors of a study published in Paediatrics.
An audit of data from Bedfordshire Clinical Commissioning Group in England has found inconsistencies in asthma care that could leave high-risk patients unidentified and at risk of death.
Healthy diet linked to improved asthma symptomsSubscription
Research across a large cohort using three different quality measures has shown that a healthy diet is associated with a reduced likelihood of experiencing asthma symptoms.
Asthma is one of the most common respiratory conditions in the UK. Around 30% of asthma patients fail to attend their annual asthma review, which leads to an increase in the number of preventable asthma-related hospital admissions. By using SIMPLE methodology and the PharmOutcomes® web-based system on 27 patients, it was determined that the community pharmacy asthma review service would enhance patient care through close collaboration with GP surgeries.
Research has shown dupilumab reduces glucocorticoid use by more than 70% and the number of severe asthma exacerbations by almost 60%.
Point-of-care C-reactive protein testing reduces antibiotic use in people with acute COPD exacerbations, a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine has shown.
Triple therapy reduces the number of moderate-to-severe exacerbations in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a study presented at the CHEST annual meeting has shown.
There is a lack of ‘convincing’ evidence that statins improve outcomes in non-cardiovascular conditions, such as diabetes, a review has shown.
Role of dual and triple fixed-dose combination inhalers in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseSubscription
A review of the current evidence, including the safety and efficacy of dual and triple-combination inhalers for the treatment of stable COPD, and their place in therapy.
Study shows that current smokers, aged 60 years or older, had a 60% greater odds of becoming frail during follow-up compared with non-smokers.
A lack of funding for research into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as difficulties in conducting clinical trials, make finding new treatments for this respiratory condition challenging. But there are glimmers of hope, such as reversing steroid resistance and identifying subpopulations of patients in order to speed up clinical trials.
Enzyme mouth spray could shorten cold durationSubscription
An oral spray containing a proteolytic enzyme reduced the severity and duration of the common cold, a randomised study has found.
Analysis of children presenting in primary care has found that delaying or withholding antibiotics is the most appropriate way of treating suspected respiratory tract infections.
Research into long-term proton pump inhibitor use among older adults has led to cautions over pneumonia risk.
Narrow-spectrum antibiotics favourable for paediatric respiratory infections, researchers saySubscription
Research has shown that broad-spectrum antibiotics are associated with slightly worse quality of life in children compared with narrow-spectrum antibiotics, without providing a significant benefit
Cathelicidins could be a new therapeutic strategy for the management of human rhinovirus infection, researchers suggest.
Rhinovirus, the pathogen behind the common cold, can cause severe, acute lung disease in children and those with underlying respiratory conditions. Since the 1970s, vaccine development has been hindered by the presence of numerous virus serotypes and the lack of a good animal model to test vaccine candidates. However, several different research groups are now making good progress on rhinovirus vaccines, using a variety of different techniques.