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Viral infections

Everything you should know about the coronavirus outbreak

The latest information about the novel coronavirus identified in Wuhan, China, and advice on how pharmacists can help concerned patients and the public.

Open access article

The Royal Pharmaceutical Society has made this feature article free to access in order to help healthcare professionals stay informed about an issue of national importance.

To learn more about coronavirus, please visit:

Sick man on subway wearing mask


Measures to guard against the infection work under the current assumption that SARS-CoV-2 is spread by respiratory droplets, although face masks are unlikely to prevent infection

A novel strain of coronavirus — SARS-CoV-2 — was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, a city in China’s Hubei province with a population of 11 million, after an outbreak of pneumonia without an obvious cause. The virus has now spread to over 200 countries and territories across the globe, and was characterised as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020[1],[2].

As of 6 April 2020, there were 1,210,956 laboratory-confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, with 67,594 reported deaths. The number of cases and deaths outside of China overtook those within the country on 16 March 2020[3].

As of 9am on 6 April 2020, there were 51,608 confirmed cases of the virus in the UK and, as of 5pm on 5 April 2020, 5,373 of those hospitalised with COVID-19 have died.

This article gives a brief overview of the new virus and what to look out for, and will be updated daily. It provides answers to the following questions:

What are coronaviruses?

Where has the new coronavirus come from? 

How contagious is COVID-19?

How is COVID-19 diagnosed?

What social distancing measures are being taken in the UK?

What is happening with testing for COVID-19?

What should I do if a patient thinks they have COVID-19?

What can I do to protect myself and my staff?

What about ‘business as usual’ during the pandemic?

How can cross-infection be prevented?

There has been a lot of talk in the news and on social media about how certain medications can exacerbate the symptoms of COVID-19, what is the current advice around these medications?

Where can I find information on managing COVID-19 patients?

Is the coronavirus pandemic likely to precipitate medicines shortages?

What are coronaviruses?

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronaviridae, a common type of virus which affects mammals, birds and reptiles.

In humans, it commonly causes mild infections, similar to the common cold, and accounts for 10–30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults[4]. More serious infections are rare, although coronaviruses can cause enteric and neurological disease[5]. The incubation period of a coronavirus varies but is generally up to two weeks[6].

Previous coronavirus outbreaks include Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), identified in southern China in 2003[7],[8]. MERS infected around 2,500 people and led to more than 850 deaths while SARS infected more than 8,000 people and resulted in nearly 800 deaths[9],[10]. The case fatality rates for these conditions were 35% and 10%, respectively.

SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. Although the incubation period of this strain is currently unknown, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that symptoms may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure[6]. Chinese researchers have indicated that SARS-CoV-2 may be infectious during its incubation period[11].

The number of cases and deaths outside of China overtook those within it on 16 March 2020

Where has the new coronavirus come from?

It is currently unclear where the virus has come from. Originally, the virus was understood to have originated in a food market in Wuhan and subsequently spread from animal to human. Some research has claimed that the cross-species transmission may be between snake and human; however, this claim has been contested[12],[13].

Mammals such as camels and bats have been implicated in previous coronavirus outbreaks, but it is not yet clear the exact animal origin, if any, of SARS-CoV-2[14].

How contagious is COVID-19?

Increasing numbers of confirmed diagnoses, including in healthcare professionals, has indicated that person-to-person spread of SARS-CoV-2 is occurring[15]. The preliminary reproduction number (i.e. the average number of cases a single case generates over the course of its infectious period) is currently estimated to be between 1.4 to 2.5, meaning that each infected individual could infect between 1.4 and 2.5 people[16].

Similarly to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets produced by an infected person when they sneeze or cough[17]. Measures to guard against the infection work under the current assumption that SARS-CoV-2 is spread in the same manner.

How is COVID-19 diagnosed?

As this coronavirus affects the respiratory tract, common presenting symptoms include fever and dry cough, with some patients presenting with respiratory symptoms (e.g. sore throat, nasal congestion, malaise, headache and myalgia) or even struggling for breath.

In severe cases, the coronavirus can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and death[18].

The case definition for COVID-19 was amended on 13 March 2020 and is now based on symptoms regardless of travel history or contact with confirmed cases. Diagnosis is suspected in patients requiring admission to hospital with signs and symptoms of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome or influenza, and in those with a new, continuous cough or fever who are well enough to stay in the community (see Box 1). A diagnostic test has been developed, and countries are quarantining suspected cases[19].

Box 1: Who qualifies as a suspected COVID-19 case?

Patients who meet the following criteria (inpatient definition):

  • Those requiring admission to hospital AND
  • Those who have either clinical or radiological evidence of pneumonia OR
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome OR
  • Influenza like illness (fever ≥37.8°C and at least one of the following respiratory symptoms, which must be of acute onset: persistent cough [with or without sputum], hoarseness, nasal discharge or congestion, shortness of breath, sore throat, wheezing, sneezing).

Patients who meet the following criteria and are well enough to remain in the community:

  • New continuous cough AND/OR
  • High temperature

Individuals with a cough or fever who live alone should now stay at home for 7 days from the onset of symptoms. Households should all self-isolate for 14 days if one member shows symptoms.

Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of atypical presentations in patients who are immunocompromised. Alternative clinical diagnoses and epidemiological risk factors should be considered.

Source: Department of Health and Social Care

What social distancing measures are being taken in the UK? 

The government launched its coronavirus action plan on 3 March 2020, which details four stages: contain, delay, mitigate, research[20]. On 12 March 2020, the UK moved to the delay phase of the plan and raised the risk level to ‘high’.

On 16 March 2020, Johnson said that the UK is “now approaching the fast growth part of the upward curve” and, without drastic action, cases could double every 5 or 6 days. He announced social distancing measures, such as working from home and avoiding social gatherings, as well as household isolation for those with symptoms[21],[22].

Further social distancing measures were announced on 18 MArch 2020, including closing all schools in the UK except for vulnerable children and those of key workers, such as pharmacists and other health and social care staff, teachers and delivery drivers. Restaurants, cafes, pubs, leisure centres, nightclubs, cinemas, theatres, museums and other businesses were also told to close.

On 22 March 2020, Johnson announced that the most vulnerable people, including those who have received organ transplants, are living with severe respiratory conditions or specific cancers, and some people taking immunosuppressants, should stay in their homes for at least the next 12 weeks.

And on 23 March 2020, Johnson warned that, without a huge national effort to halt the growth of coronavirus, “there will come a moment when no health service in the world could possibly cope; because there won’t be enough ventilators, enough intensive care beds, enough doctors and nurses”.

He announced a strict lockdown of the UK to be enforced by police, instructing people to stay at home except to buy essential food and medicines, one form of exercise a day, any medical need, and travelling to and from essential work. He said that all gatherings of more than two people in public must stop and, with immediate effect, all shops selling non-essential goods, libraries, playgrounds, outdoor gyms and places of worship must close. All social events, including weddings, baptisms and other ceremonies, but excluding funerals must be cancelled, he added.

What is happening with testing for COVID-19?

As of 6 April 2020, 208,837 people had been tested for COVID-19 in the UK. Testing has switched from testing all suspected cases to focussing on patients who are admitted to hospital with respiratory illnesses.

However, on 18 March 2020, the Department of Health and Social Care announced that officials are working to increase the number of tests that can be conducted by Public Health England (PHE) and the NHS to 25,000 a day over the next four weeks. And on 2 April 2020, health secretary Matt Hancock outlined plans to dramatically increase testing in England to 100,000 tests a day by the end of the month.

The government is also working with companies to rapidly develop a test to establish whether people have developed immunity, which it said “will help get NHS and other critical public sector staff back to work as fast as they can”. At the 18 March 2020 daily government press conference, Patrick Vallance, the government’s chief scientific adviser, referred to the antibody test as a “game changer” and said that work was progressing very fast, with PHE “looking at this today”.

The increased testing will also include developing a point-of-care swab test outside of hospitals, so people with suspected symptoms can quickly find out if they have coronavirus.

On 27 March 2020, Hancock announced that NHS staff will be first in line for a new coronavirus testing programme being developed in collaboration with government and industry. The testing will be carried out in three new hub laboratories, with partners including Amazon, Royal Mail and Boots, which has been supporting initial trials by supplying volunteer healthcare clinicians — both from Boots and the wider community — as testers.

Testing will begin with staff in critical care, emergency departments and ambulance services who have been forced to self-isolate at home for 14 days.

The Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee has confirmed that community pharmacy staff will be included in the testing programme at some point.

What should I do if a patient thinks they have COVID-19?

Patients have been advised not to go to their community pharmacy if they are concerned that they have COVID-19. Those with a new, continuous cough or a high temperature who live alone should self-isolate for seven days from the onset of symptoms. Households should all self-isolate for 14 days if one member shows symptoms[22]. There is no need for people with minor symptoms to telephone NHS 111 or to be tested for COVID-19.

However, given the outbreak has coincided with the cold and flu season, it is likely that patients may present in the pharmacy with queries about the virus, or with concerns about their cold or flu symptoms.

Community pharmacies were told by NHS England and NHS Improvement on 27 February 2020 that, in the unlikely event that a suspected case does present, they must prepare a “designated isolation space”[23].

If the pharmacy does not have a suitable room to isolate a suspected patient, an area that would keep a patient at least two metres away from staff and other patients in the pharmacy should be prepared so that it can be cordoned off.

Patients who present with a new, continuous cough or a high temperature should be told to return home immediately and self-isolate. If, in the clinical judgement of the pharmacist, the person is too unwell to return home, they and any accompanying family should be invited into the designated isolation space where emergency services should be contacted.

The Royal Pharmaceutical Society is publishing ongoing guidance on contingency planning for COVID-19, which includes measures to protect the pharmacy team, such as limiting the number of people within the pharmacy at the same time, keeping at least two metres apart from staff and people coming into the pharmacy, and sectioning the pharmacy to encourage social distancing with floor markings (using tape) or barriers. The RPS has also produced a table to help pharmacists distinguish between COVID-19, a cold, the flu and hayfever. 

Those with cold and flu symptoms that are not indicative of COVID-19 should be managed as usual, or using the pathway developed by The Pharmaceutical Journal.

The General Pharmaceutical Council said on 3 March 2020 that it recognises pharmacists may need to depart from established procedures in order to care for patients during the coronavirus outbreak and that regulatory standards are designed to be flexible and to provide a framework for decision-making in a wide range of situations.

In a joint statement with ten other health regulators, the GPhC said: “Where a concern is raised about a registered professional, it will always be considered on the specific facts of the case, taking into account the factors relevant to the environment in which the professional is working”.

What can I do to protect myself and my staff?

An updated standard operating procedure (SOP) for community pharmacies, published on 22 March 2020, sets out measures to protect pharmacy staff, including advising customers to keep a distance of at least two metres from other people, limiting entry and exit to the pharmacy and installing full screens to protect members of staff from airborne particles (see Learning article section ‘Enforcing social distancing’ for further details). 

New guidance on personal protective equipment (PPE) was published by Public Health England on 2 April 2020. The guidance states that, for community pharmacy staff, if social distancing of 2 metres is not maintained, sessional use of fluid repellent surgical masks is recommended. Sessional use means for the duration of duties in a specific clinical care setting or exposure environment. However, a table accompanying the guidance appears to give a narrower definition of when a facemask should be worn, specifying that pharmacy staff only need wear one if they are working in an area with possible or confirmed cases (ie, individuals with a new, continuous cough or high fever) and are unable to maintain social distancing of 2 metres. Although it does add that “sessional use should always be risk assessed and considered where there are high rates of community cases”.

The RPS says the new PPE guidance means that pharmacy staff working in community pharmacies and general practice should wear fluid repellent surgical masks if they are unable to maintain a social distance of 2 metres from patients and staff, and emphasises that it is still important to try to maintain social distance when wearing surgical masks wherever possible. The RPS also advises that gloves, apron and surgical masks should be worn by staff in direct contact with a patient, for example, when a person is too unwell to go home and is being cared for in the designated isolation space.

For hospital pharmacists, specific recommendations on PPE apply depending on the context, eg, inpatient areas, emergency departments, etc.

Staff who have symptoms of COVID-19, or live with someone experiencing symptoms, should stay at home. Those who fall into one of the vulnerable groups at particular risk of complications from COVID-19 should not see patients face-to-face, regardless of whether the patient has possible COVID-19. Remote working should be prioritised for these staff. 

What about ‘business as usual’ during the pandemic?

Pharmacies are on the frontline of the fight against coronavirus and demand for services is high. The updated standard operating procedure (SOP) for community pharmacies specifies that, if under significant pressure, pharmacies may adjust their opening hours to cope with demand.

A number of contractual services have been put on hold and others have been brought forward (see Learning article section ‘Adjusting opening hours and pharmacy services’ for further details). 

The PSNC has announced that community pharmacies in England will be given cash advances totalling £300m over the next two months to help with cashflow during the pandemic, but no extra funding has been negotiated so far. Advance payments have also been agreed for community pharmacies in Scotland and Wales.

On 24 March 2020, health secretary Matt Hancock announced that ‘NHS Volunteer Responders’ will help to deliver medicines to patients’ homes on behalf of community pharmacies in England (see Learning article section ‘Communicating with patients’ for further details).

In Wales, the government is identifying a cohort of DBS checked volunteers through British Red Cross to help vulnerable people with no existing social network to obtain medicines supplies. One volunteer with be “buddied up” with each community pharmacy and available, if needed, to provide an additional 10 deliveries each day.

The General Pharmaceutical Council has stopped all routine inspections of pharmacies and submission of revalidation records has been postponed.

On 26 March 2020, the GPhC announced that the pharmacy pre-registration assessments for June and September 2020 have been postponed and will be rescheduled for the end of 2020, or early in 2021.

More than 6,200 pharmacy professionals who left the register within the past three years have been given temporary registration so that they can to return to work during the COVID-19 pandemic, if they wish to do so.

How can cross-infection be prevented?

The WHO has created a range of infographics to illustrate how patients can protect themselves and others from getting sick; however, most of the advice is similar to what would be provided for colds and flu (see Figure)[24].

How to reduce the risk of coronavirus infection

Figure: Infographic – How to reduce the risk of coronavirus infection

Source: Source: World Health Organization; 2020. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

There is no specific treatment for COVID-19. Although vaccines can be developed to treat viruses, owing to the novel nature of this infection, no vaccine has currently been developed and the process to develop one may take 12 to 18 months[18]. As an example, many antiviral agents have been identified to inhibit SARS in vitro, but there are currently no approved antiviral agents or vaccines available to tackle any potential SARS or SARS-like outbreaks, such as MERS or SARS-CoV-2[25].

There has been a lot of talk in the news and on social media about how certain medications can exacerbate the symptoms of COVID-19, what is the current advice around these medications?

On 16 March 2020, the British Cardiovascular Society and the British Society for Heart Failure published a statement saying that patients should continue treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers unless “specifically advised to stop by their medical team”.

The advice was issued following concerns circulated on social media that these medicines could predispose them to adverse outcomes should they become infected with COVID-19.

Both societies recommended that patients taking these medicines who present as unwell, or with a suspected or known COVID-19 infection, should be assessed on an individual basis and their medication managed according to established guidance. Inappropriate cessation of therapy could lead to a decline in control of blood pressure, heart failure or any other condition the individuals takes these medicines for.

Similar concerns have also arisen around the use of ibuprofen following unverified claims, backed by Oliver Veran, France’s health minister, that ibuprofen may exacerbate symptoms of the virus.

On 17 March 2020, the NHS issued updated guidance for patients to clarify that there is not sufficient evidence to support advice for patients to stop using NSAIDs without consulting their doctor but advised that individuals with COVID-19 take paracetamol to treat their symptoms.

The Committee of Human Medicines — an advisory body of Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency — and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence have been instructed to review the evidence on the impact of NSAIDs on the severity of COVID-19 infection and the NHS’s position will be kept under constant review.

Where can I find information on managing COVID-19 patients?

The Royal Pharmaceutical Society has collated resources for hospital pharmacists on the clinical management of patients with COVID-19, including treatments, use of experimental therapies, and evidence-based summaries.

The resources also include information on critical care services during the pandemic and guidance on COVID-19 in special populations, such as children, pregnant women, patients taking warfarin and those with cancer, respiratory conditions, diabetes, rheumatological conditions and HIV.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has produced COVID-19 rapid guidelines covering a number of areas, including critical care in adults, delivery of systemic anticancer treatment, severe asthma, pneumonia, rheumatological disorders and symptom management in community settings.

Is the coronavirus pandemic likely to precipitate medicines shortages?

The government banned the parallel export of chloroquine, as well as the antiretroviral lopinavir/ritonavir, on 26 February 2020 because they are being tested as possible treatments for COVID-19. There has been a lot of attention in the media on the potential benefits of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in treating patients with COVID-19 but the Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency has warned that these medicines are not licensed to treat COVID-19 related symptoms or prevent infection and, until there is clear, definitive evidence that these treatments are safe and effective for the treatment of COVID-19, they should only be used for this purpose within a clinical trial.

On 20 March 2020, the government banned from parallel export more than 80 medicines used to treat patients in intensive care units. The restrictions cover crucial medicines such as adrenaline, insulin, paracetamol and morphine and are designed to prevent medicines shortages. A further 52 medicines, including a number of respiratory medicines, antibiotics, analgesics and insulin products, were banned from export on 31 March 2020.

Community pharmacists have been experiencing huge demand for paracetamol and many have reported shortages of paracetamol tablets 500mg as pharmacy and general sales list packs. The National Pharmacy Association and the GPhC have both said that pharmacies are able to break down larger packs to prepare supplies of a non-prescription items for retail sale.

Shortages of Chiesi’s Clenil and Fostair inhalers, along with inhalers from other brands, have been noticed by pharmacists as patients begin to panic and order inhalers they potentially do not need. The wholesaler AAH Pharmaceuticals placed 11 inhalers on its “out of stock” list on the 30 March 2020. NHS England wrote to healthcare professionals working in primary care on 31 March 2020, asking them not to overprescribe or over-order during this time, as this will create further pressures on the supply chain.




Citation: The Pharmaceutical Journal DOI: 10.1211/PJ.2020.20207629

Readers' comments (2)

  • This is an extreme danger virus. We must know as much as possible information. Thanks for this
    Coronavirus: History, study, types, symptoms

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    • Respect the incubation period and stay in quarantine, symptoms can take up to 14 days to appear;
    • At the first symptoms such as fever, cough or dyspnea, call 15 directly;
    • Do not go directly to your GP or to the emergency room;
    • Wear a spray mask to protect your surroundings;
    • Avoid human contact, especially with frail people (children, the elderly, immunocompromised, pregnant women);
    • Stay home until you heal.

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