Pharmacy First and the Community Pharmacy Consultation Service are placing pharmacy at the centre of helping patients self-care as a way to manage minor conditions. Here is our guide on how to handle the range of cases that may present in the pharmacy.
Case-based learning: shinglesSubscription
This article outlines how to recognise shingles, its causes and risk factors, and the role of pharmacists in managing treatment and preventing spread.
In this video, Gino Martini, chief scientist at the Royal Pharmaceutical Society, outlines evidence-based management options for acute, chronic and chronic primary pain to address misconceptions and promote best practice in pharmacy.
This learning resource outlines guideline-based recommendations for the management of children and young people with fever, including the appropriate use of over-the-counter analgesics, to support effective pharmacy consultations.
Oral candidiasis: causes, types and treatmentSubscription
Pharmacists and pharmacy teams should be able to recognise oral thrush, a common yeast infection, and provide appropriate treatment advice to resolve infections.
This learning resource outlines evidence-based best practice for pharmacy consultations focusing on acute pain, including appropriate selection of over-the-counter analgesics to enable effective self-care.
Case-based learning: constipation in adultsSubscription
It is important that pharmacists understand how to appropriately and safely manage patients with constipation in light of new Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency guidance announced in August 2020.
An overview of the main differences between the symptoms for colds, flu and COVID-19, to enable pharmacy teams to advise patients effectively on their management, including treatment and/or referral.
Case-based learning: impetigoSubscription
Pharmacists need to identify and manage impetigo effectively to help prevent its spread.
Anaphylaxis: symptoms, causes and diagnosisSubscription
Anaphylaxis normally develops suddenly and can be fatal if not correctly identified and managed.
Anaphylaxis: management Subscription
Anaphylaxis is potentially life-threatening; therefore, pharmacists must be able to immediately recognise symptoms and know how to treat patients.
Case-based learning: anxiety disordersSubscription
There are many types of anxiety disorders with varying levels of severity. Pharmacists should know the treatment options that are available and how to support patients.
Dental caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer are health problems that can be prevented with the help of community pharmacists.
Patients often use their pharmacy as the first point of call for advice on the management of acute pain. This article outlines how to conduct a patient-centred acute pain consultation using a shared-decision making approach.
Pharmacists and their teams should be able to manage patients presenting with ear discharge, earache and dizziness effectively, referring patients only when necessary.
Managing ear problems: hearing loss and tinnitusSubscription
Pharmacy teams should know when to manage and refer patients presenting with hearing loss or tinnitus.
Practical steps for implementing a training programme to support staff in delivering consistent and reliable cold and flu management advice to the public.
Having a meaningful conversation with patients about cold and flu symptoms and management can be challenging, but it can be made easier by applying effective consultation skill theory to everyday practice.
Patients should use pharmacy as their first point of call for advice for the management of minor conditions, such as cold and flu, and have clear expectations around what pharmacy can offer. This article outlines the approach and principles behind effective and meaningful consultations.
Case-based learning: sore throatSubscription
Most sore throats are caused by viral infections and get better within a week through self-care. However, it is important to recognise when a sore throat is a symptom of a more serious illness.
Case-based learning: cough Subscription
Most coughs are acute and self-limiting; however, it is important to understand when a cough becomes clinically significant.
The variety of over-the-counter treatment options and guidelines means there can be misconceptions around the best options for patients. This article, part of the acute pain learning series, has been developed to highlight when and why pharmacists should review guidelines and the evidence base to support clinical decision making in patients presenting with symptoms of acute pain.
Case-based learning: acne vulgarisSubscription
Causes, diagnosis and management options for a range of patients, including those with mild or moderate acne.
Diverticular disease and diverticulitis can be managed well in the community, with GPs, pharmacists and dietitians playing major roles.
Patients often present to community pharmacies with oral and dental problems. This article focuses on the advice pharmacists and their teams can give to patients presenting with hard tissue emergencies.
Oral ulceration: causes and managementSubscription
Patients often present in community pharmacy with mouth ulcers. This article describes the aetiology, presentation and treatment options for six types.
Appropriate community pharmacy management and referral of patients with chronic peripheral joint pain
A summary of best practice joint pain management recommendations for use by community pharmacy teams.
A guide to help community pharmacy team members effectively engage in conversations with patients about joint pain symptoms.
How to advise parents, dispell myths and spot the ‘red flags’ for onward referral.
Managing plantar heel pain in the pharmacySubscription
How to differentiate plantar fasciopathy from other causes of plantar heel pain, advice for pharmacists on counselling patients and when to refer.
How to treat fungal nail effectivelySubscription
Owing to the high recurrence rate of fungal nail infections, pharmacy professionals should be able to advise patients on effective treatment and preventative and appropriate self-care strategies to avoid re-infection.
It is increasingly recognised that many modifiable lifestyle factors contribute to sight loss.
What advice pharmacists and their teams can give to patients presenting with soft tissue dental conditions in community pharmacy.
Pharmacists can provide treatment and advice for this common yeast infection.
Heavy menstrual bleeding has a major impact on a woman’s quality of life. This article covers the most recent guidance and available treatment options.
How pharmacists and pharmacy professionals can diagnose this complex problem and advise parents and carers on options for management.
Advising denture wearers in community pharmacySubscription
Community pharmacy is ideally placed to provide first-line advice and support for patients experiencing issues with their dentures. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of the common problems patients encounter and be able to recommend products that may be beneficial to relieve any symptoms they are experiencing.
Computer vision syndrome is a group of eye and vision-related problems that result from prolonged computer, tablet, e-reader and mobile phone use. Patients may present to pharmacies complaining of eye discomfort and vision problems, so pharmacists and pharmacy teams should be able to distinguish the factors involved for particular patients
Chronic open-angle glaucoma: case studySubscription
Understand how to advise on chronic-open angle glaucoma, a condition in which intraocular pressure can permanently damage the optic nerve and nerve fibre, leading to blindness if left untreated.
July 2017 saw publication of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society International Dry Eye Workshop report, an update to the 2007 report that became the reference for clinicians, researchers and industry on dry eye. Pharmacy is a frequent point of contact for patients with a dry eye condition. Pharmacists and pharmacy teams should therefore be aware of its changing definiton, causes, diagnosis and management.
Conjunctivitis in pregnancy: case studySubscription
Healthcare professionals should advise non-pharmacological therapies for the initial treatment of minor ailments, such as eye conditions, in women who are pregnant. A conservative approach reduces the risk of exposing the unborn baby to medicines and their metabolites.
Wet age-related macular degeneration: case studySubscription
Advance your knowledge of age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in older adults in the developed world.
Patients often visit community pharmacy with eye complaints, and pharmacists are well placed to advise them. Boost your knowledge of the pathology, signs and treatment of common eye conditions, such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis.
Patients of all ages visit their pharmacy to seek advice on a variety of conditions affecting their feet, but some groups, including the young and active, people with diabetes and elderly patients, are at higher risk of developing common foot conditions. Produced in partnership with RB.
Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 4% of all new cancer diagnoses. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are ideally placed to offer advice to patients on the use of sunscreens to limit UV exposure, reducing their risk of developing melanoma.
Glaucoma: an overviewSubscription
Stay abreast of glaucoma with an essential guide to its causes, diagnosis and management.
Rashes in childrenSubscription
Rashes in children are common and may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, therefore, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation in order to make the appropriate diagnosis.
Topical drug dosage forms for eye conditionsSubscription
Pharmacists managing localised eye problems should be aware of the dosage froms that can be administered topically to the eye — solutions, suspensions and ointments — and their advantages, disadvantages, and considerations for use.
Earache is a common problem that can be the result of a variety of different pathologies. It is important for pharmacists and healthcare professionals to appropriately diagnose primary and secondary earache and ear infections.
Advising patients on halitosis and oral hygieneSubscription
Halitosis (bad breath) is estimated to be the third most frequent reason for patients to seek dental care, following tooth decay and gum disease. Pharmacists are ideally placed to promote oral health and provide patients with advice on the prevention and management of halitosis.
It is estimated that in the UK there are more than half a million people with clinically undiagnosed coeliac disease, caused by an adverse immune response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals can play a key role in identifying individuals with symptoms, referring them for testing, ultimately leading to earlier diagnosis.
Head lice: resistance and treatment optionsSubscription
An update on head lice, their identification and the various treatment options available after considering resistance and treatment failure.
How community pharmacists can best manage patients with dry eye conditions.
How community pharmacists can identify patients with dry eye and how these conditions can be diagnosed.
Tooth eruption and teething in childrenSubscription
Identifying symptoms associated with primary tooth eruption, the available treatments and best practice for management.
Helminth infections: diagnosis and treatmentSubscription
Diagnosis and selection of appropriate drug treatments for common helminth infections.
Warts and verrucas: assessment and treatmentSubscription
Lesions caused by human papilloma virus often do not require treatment, but need to be assessed to rule out more serious conditions.
Untangling IBS from IBD Subscription
Although they sound similar, share some symptoms and are not mutually exclusive, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease are two distinct conditions that require different approaches.
Relief from indigestion: a visual guideSubscription
Indigestion and heartburn affect four in ten people. This guide illustrates the options available over the counter for managing symptoms and how they work.
Hay fever: OTC managementSubscription
More patients may seek advice on hay fever in the future since NHS England has advised GPs not to routinely prescribe products that are available over the counter for this condition.
An overview of joint pain for community pharmacy teams.
Putting insomnia to bedSubscription
An estimated 30–50% of the population will experience insomnia symptoms at some point in their lives and, in the UK, insomnia rates steadily rise with age. With a 2% increase in sales of over-the-counter sleep aids during 2017, pharmacists are seeing more patients with insomnia symptoms. Here we discuss the health implications of not getting enough sleep and what can be done to help people drift off.
Current treatments for acne are effective but regimens are complex and side effects are common. Better understanding of the pathology of acne is leading to identification of new, safer, treatment targets, and dermatologists and researchers in the field are excited about the pipeline.
Approval of the first over-the-counter topical retinoid in the United States is a welcome move and should be replicated in other countries.
Over-the-counter treatments for the common cough need to be brought up to date and improved, especially considering the social and economic implications of the condition.
NHS Grampian project: treating uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection in community pharmacySubscription
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common conditions seen in female patients in general practice (GP) and account for 1–3% of all GP consultations each year in the UK. Over-the-counter (OTC) treatments for UTIs currently available in community pharmacy only attempt to relieve symptoms, and do not address the bacterial infection. The Grampian project was developed to provide treatment of uncomplicated UTIs through community pharmacies by means of a Patient Group Direction ...
A new way to look at acute cough in the pharmacySubscription
Cough is the most common symptom for which people seek medical advice, and patients with cough frequently present to community pharmacy. Cough can be either acute or chronic. Acute cough, defined as being of less than three weeks’ duration, is often caused by viral respiratory tract infection and is probably one of the most common reasons for accessing healthcare in the community. For these infections, no antiviral treatment exists and antibiotics have been shown to be ineffective in ...
Allergic rhinitis results from an immunological abnormality in which atopic individuals produce immunoglobulin E (IgE) to allergens (e.g. pollen, house dust mites, animal dander and moulds). IgE activates mast cells, which respond by releasing inflammatory mediators. Histamine stimulates the early symptoms, predominately mucus production, nasal itching and sneezing. Leukotrienes and cytokines attract and activate eosinophils to cause allergic inflammation, which is primarily responsible ...