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Coloured 3D computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen of a patient with impacted bowels, which could occur in patients with untreated constipation

Constipation: managing the condition in adultsSubscription

How to assess patients with constipation and select the right treatment to minimise the risk of complications.

Dialysis involves passing the patient’s blood against a semi-permeable membrane. The main options are haemodialysis (HD) pictured, using a dialysis machine and peritoneal dialysis (PD), which uses the patient’s peritoneum

Dialysis: principles and treatment optionsSubscription

How to choose between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis when starting renal replacement therapy.

Patients with end-stage renal disease require renal replacement therapy, such as dialysis, to replace the function of the kidneys. Patients will require clinical management to provide a number of small functions. In the image, a patient receives dialysis

Dialysis: managementSubscription

How to identify and manage potential complications and challenges presented by haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Step-by-step guide on what to do when a patient experiences an epileptic seizure. In the image, a woman has an electroencephalography

Epileptic seizure: urgent actionSubscription

Find out what to do if a patient experiences an epileptic seizure in our step-by-step guide.

High magnification micrograph of liver cirrhosis

Liver impairment: ensuring medicines safetySubscription

How liver disease can affect absorption and excretion and the clinical consequences for common medicines.

Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of red blood cells. Iron deficiency anaemia is usually related to low intake of iron

Iron deficiency anaemia: basic managementSubscription

Test your knowledge with this case study on a common condition with non-specific symptoms.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In the image, Fluorescent light micrograph of a section through a spinal cord affected by multiple sclerosis (MS).

Multiple sclerosis: identification and managementSubscription

How to treat the symptoms of the most common cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults.

Hypertension is the leading risk factor associated with death in the world

Hypertension: pathophysiology and diagnosisSubscription

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is the leading risk factor associated with death in the world but is largely asymptomatic and often undetected in patients.

All patients with hypertension should be encouraged to make lifestyle changes. Lifestyle changes have been shown to have a substantial impact on blood pressure as well as other cardiovascular risk factors

Hypertension: managementSubscription

The choice of medicines used to manage hypertension depends on the patient’s age and ethnicity.

Potassium, magnesium, sodium and calcium imbalances can lead to serious heart complications

Electrolytes in cardiologySubscription

How potassium, magnesium, sodium and calcium imbalances can lead to serious heart complications.

More CPD modules

In the image, a colour x-ray of a coronary artery with Kawasaki disease, a type of vasculitis. Vasculitis is a collection of rare diseases characterised by the inflammation of blood vessel walls.

Managing ANCA-associated vasculitisSubscription

Treatment of vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies requires immunosuppressive therapies and close monitoring of the patient to manage toxicity.

X-ray of deep vein thrombosis, pictured. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are used widely for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Low molecular weight heparins for treating venous thromboembolismSubscription

How to start patients on these common injected anticoagulants and optimise treatment.

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are indicated in the management of most patients with asthma and some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the image, a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) showing alveoli and pulmonary blood vessels

Inhaled corticosteroids: managing side effectsSubscription

Inhaled corticosteroids are commonly prescribed but need careful management to minimise the risk of side effects.

Coloured magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain, in profile, of a 35 year old woman with multiple sclerosis (MS)

Tizanidine interactionsSubscription

Careful titration of the skeletal muscle relaxant tizanidine is required to avoid dose-related hypotension, and its serum levels can be increased by drugs that inhibit CYP1A2.

Learning articles of the year: check your knowledge of subjects ranging from ebola to QT syndrome.

Highlights of CPD and learning in 2014Subscription

Try our clinical quiz, taken from this year’s learning articles, and check your knowledge of subjects ranging from Ebola to QT syndrome.


Pipeline November 2014Subscription

The latest approvals and positive opinions from the European Medicines Agency.

Pathology specimen of Crohn's disease (pictured) is a condition of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Optimising therapy for inflammatory bowel diseaseSubscription

How to tailor treatment for patients and ensure optimum management of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Growing antimicrobial resistance is growing and results in 25,000 deaths in Europe each year. In the image, enterobacteriaceae (CRE) bacterium in an antibiotic susceptibility test proved to be resistant to all of the antibiotics tested

Improving antimicrobial stewardshipVideoSubscription

Improve your practice and slow the increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance that already cost around 25,000 deaths across Europe each year.

Cangliflozin and dapagliflozine are used to treat diabetes as each blocks the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidneys

Canagliflozin and dapagliflozin interactions in diabetes treatmentSubscription

Find out which interactions are associated with the latest antidiabetic medicines.

Complications after cardiac surgery can be life-threatening but are manageable with appropriate drug treatment

Cardiac surgery: caring for a patient and managing complicationsSubscription

Life-threatening complications following cardiac surgery are common, but can be managed with appropriate treatment.

More Learning articles


The Pharmaceutical Journal (PJ) is the official weekly journal of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. With a circulation of over 30,000 copies the PJ has the largest circulation of any weekly pharmaceutical publication in the world.

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Medical Publication of the year 2007

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