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Treatment of complex oral lesionsSubscription

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Patients with complex oral lesions are often prescribed treatments off-label. Pharmacists can assist in the care of these patients by counselling them on appropriate use of topical preparations.


Theophylline interactionsSubscription

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Can someone start nicotine replacement therapy while taking theophylline to manage COPD?

Hidradenitis suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativaSubscription


Although there is no cure for this painful condition, pharmacists can play a key role in its management.


Managing heat exhaustion in primary careSubscription


Heat-related conditions account for more than 1,000 deaths in the UK each year, a death toll set to rise as extreme weather events become the new norm.

Amoebic dysentery in an elderly patientSubscription

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A 70-year-old, 47kg woman was admitted via the accident and emergency department with a 14-day history of diarrhoea with recent urge incontinence, cramping abdominal pain and three episodes of vomiting. The patient was diagnosed with amoebic dysentery. Read on to learn about the patient’s signs and symptoms.

IV_catheter_Andrzej Tokarski_dreams

Are there any advantages in using heparin solutions to flush intravascular catheters?Subscription

Should heparin-based solutions be used in preference to normal saline to prevent obstruction in indwelling intravascular catheters? 

How clozapine patients can be monitored safely and effectivelySubscription

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Patients who are taking clozapine require ongoing monitoring because of the risk of serious blood dyscrasias. What should pharmacists be checking before they dispense the medicine? The drug is subject to strict monitoring requirements because it is associated with serious side effects.

Coloured X-ray of the hip of an elderly woman with a fractured femur (lower right, red) caused by osteoporosis

Osteoporosis: diagnosis and risk assessmentSubscription

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Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance in the process of bone remodelling and is most common in the ageing population

Question from practice: Management of paracetamol overdoseSubscription

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Deliberate overdose with paracetamol is a common method of self-harm. This is particularly true for young people of children aged under 15 years presenting to hospital after deliberate overdose, more than 50 per cent had taken paracetamol.

How to provide ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for patientsSubscription


Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides information on how a patient’s blood pressure changes over a 24-hour period. Pharmacists are well placed to provide this service in primary care

Osteoporosis managementSubscription

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Patients with osteoporosis may require pharmacological treatment to increase bone mineral density and correct low levels of calcium and vitamin D — thereby lowering their risk of fracture 

Jigsaw pieces making up a brain

Concerns with using sodium valproate to treat epilepsy in pregnant womenSubscription

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Using sodium valproate during pregnancy can put babies at risk of developmental problems. Kalliopi Dodou and Paul Whiteley explore some ofthe recent evidence

More learning articles

Propionibacterium acnes, bacteria that causes acne

Acne vulgaris Subscription


Acne affects eight out of ten teenagers and can persist into later life. Pharmacists have a wide range of treatments to offer patients.

HIV Virus

HIV: pathology, diagnosis and preventionSubscription


The human immunodeficiency virus hijacks the immune system of its host. Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy, challenges still remain in reducing the spread of the virus

Blood sample

HIV: managementSubscription


Combined antiretroviral therapy is taken by people with HIV infection to prolong and improve quality of life. Patients require a high level of support to help them adhere to the complex regimens prescribed


Bedaquiline in multi-drug resistant tuberculosisSubscription


The first new anti-tuberculosis drug since 1967 could revolutionise therapy and tackle resistant strains.


Thermotherapy and cryotherapySubscription


Hot and cold therapies are widely used to treat muscle pain and sports injuries. Help your patients choose the right treatment option with our essential guide

Old man walking

Heart failure: managementSubscription


Reducing mortality and delaying disease progression are two key aims of treating heart failure but, for many patients, controlling symptoms and improving quality of life are more important than longevity

Heart failure

Heart failure: clinical features and diagnosisSubscription


Around a third of patients diagnosed with heart failure will die within one year. Early identification of symptoms and diagnostic testing can lead to improved outcomes and better quality of life 


Ever heard of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?Subscription


One in 5,000 people has Ehlers-Danlos syndrome — at least twice the number as have sickle cell anaemia, phenylketonuria or haemophilia A. Learn more about it here

More CPD articles

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A project that puts medicines optimisation into patients’ pocketsSubscription


My Medication Passport was born out of a local research project to improve prescribing in the elderly. A year after it was made available nationally, one of the resource’s creators describes how it has grown

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How a pharmacy-led lung cancer awareness campaign met NHS aimsSubscription

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How a “Lung cancer awareness month” campaign demonstrated pharmacy’s crucial live-saving role in detecting the disease

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How I used patients’ records to deliver an enhanced service in the communitySubscription


The case for giving pharmacists access to patients’ records is growing stronger. Chris Rose describes how he used patient records to run a painmedicines management clinic

X-ray of the hip showing femoral neck fracture (James Cavalini/

Offer a drug holiday from biphosphonates to prevent fracturesSubscription


Your patient, a 68-year-old woman, has been taking alendronic acid for five and a half years. She has responded well to the treatment and manages the side effects fairly well. She has not had her therapy reviewed recently and you believe it might be time for a drug holiday. What is the next step?

More practice reports

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